最近在使用 ssh 连接远程服务器时, 出现了 “Too many authentication failures for xxxx” 的问题, 然而之前是可以正常登录的. 貌似服务器也没有做什么更改. 那是什么原因呢?


问题

在登录远程服务器时, 会出现如下提示:

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Keyboard-interactive authentication is disabled to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks.
Received disconnect from 172.16.22.11 port 22:2: Too many authentication failures for xxx
Disconnected from 172.16.22.11 port 22

显示指定所用的公钥后, 仍旧不行. 在加上 -vvv 输出 debug 信息后, 发现 ssh 在登录时, 尝试了 ~/.ssh 下的所有密钥, 很不幸的是, 服务器用的密钥很靠后, 还没有尝试到该密钥就已经超出限制了.

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ssh th2 -vvv
OpenSSH_7.8p1, OpenSSL 1.1.0i-fips 14 Aug 2018
debug1: Reading configuration data /home/user/.ssh/config
debug1: /home/user/.ssh/config line 4: Applying options for *
debug1: /home/user/.ssh/config line 7: Deprecated option "cipher"
debug1: /home/user/.ssh/config line 111: Applying options for th2
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug3: /etc/ssh/ssh_config line 52: Including file /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf depth 0
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf
debug3: /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf line 2: Including file /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/openssh.config depth 1
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/crypto-policies/back-ends/openssh.config
debug3: gss kex names ok: [gss-gex-sha1-,gss-group14-sha1-]
debug3: kex names ok: [curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1]
debug1: /etc/ssh/ssh_config.d/05-redhat.conf line 8: Applying options for *
debug2: resolve_canonicalize: hostname 172.16.22.11 is address
debug2: ssh_connect_direct
debug1: Connecting to 172.16.22.11 [172.16.22.11] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: identity file /home/user/.ssh/xxx_rsa type -1
debug1: identity file /home/user/.ssh/xxx_rsa-cert type -1
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.8
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_7.4
debug1: match: OpenSSH_7.4 pat OpenSSH_7.0*,OpenSSH_7.1*,OpenSSH_7.2*,OpenSSH_7.3*,OpenSSH_7.4*,OpenSSH_7.5*,OpenSSH_7.6*,OpenSSH_7.7* compat 0x04000002
debug2: fd 3 setting O_NONBLOCK
debug1: Authenticating to 172.16.22.11:22 as 'xxx'
debug3: put_host_port: [172.16.22.11]:22
debug3: hostkeys_foreach: reading file "/home/user/.ssh/known_hosts"
debug3: record_hostkey: found key type ECDSA in file /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts:121
debug3: load_hostkeys: loaded 1 keys from [172.16.22.11]:22
debug3: order_hostkeyalgs: prefer hostkeyalgs: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521
debug3: send packet: type 20
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug3: receive packet: type 20
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug2: local client KEXINIT proposal
debug2: KEX algorithms: curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,ext-info-c
debug2: host key algorithms: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,rsa-sha2-512-cert-v01@openssh.com,rsa-sha2-256-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-ed25519,rsa-sha2-512,rsa-sha2-256,ssh-rsa
debug2: ciphers ctos: aes256-gcm@openssh.com,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc
debug2: ciphers stoc: aes256-gcm@openssh.com,chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes256-ctr,aes256-cbc,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes128-cbc
debug2: MACs ctos: hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512
debug2: MACs stoc: hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha1,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512
debug2: compression ctos: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: compression stoc: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: languages ctos:
debug2: languages stoc:
debug2: first_kex_follows 0
debug2: reserved 0
debug2: peer server KEXINIT proposal
debug2: KEX algorithms: curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha256,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
debug2: host key algorithms: ssh-rsa,rsa-sha2-512,rsa-sha2-256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ssh-ed25519
debug2: ciphers ctos: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,3des-cbc
debug2: ciphers stoc: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc,blowfish-cbc,cast128-cbc,3des-cbc
debug2: MACs ctos: umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1
debug2: MACs stoc: umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1
debug2: compression ctos: none,zlib@openssh.com
debug2: compression stoc: none,zlib@openssh.com
debug2: languages ctos:
debug2: languages stoc:
debug2: first_kex_follows 0
debug2: reserved 0
debug1: kex: algorithm: curve25519-sha256@libssh.org
debug1: kex: host key algorithm: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
debug1: kex: server->client cipher: aes256-gcm@openssh.com MAC: <implicit> compression: none
debug1: kex: client->server cipher: aes256-gcm@openssh.com MAC: <implicit> compression: none
debug1: kex: curve25519-sha256@libssh.org need=32 dh_need=32
debug1: kex: curve25519-sha256@libssh.org need=32 dh_need=32
debug3: send packet: type 30
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_ECDH_REPLY
debug3: receive packet: type 31
debug1: Server host key: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
debug3: put_host_port: [172.16.22.11]:22
debug3: put_host_port: [172.16.22.11]:22
debug3: hostkeys_foreach: reading file "/home/user/.ssh/known_hosts"
debug3: record_hostkey: found key type ECDSA in file /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts:121
debug3: load_hostkeys: loaded 1 keys from [172.16.22.11]:22
debug3: hostkeys_foreach: reading file "/home/user/.ssh/known_hosts"
debug3: record_hostkey: found key type ECDSA in file /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts:121
debug3: load_hostkeys: loaded 1 keys from [172.16.22.11]:22
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@ WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED! @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEO NE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that a host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the ECDSA key sent by the remote host is
SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending ECDSA key in /home/user/.ssh/known_hosts:121
Password authentication is disabled to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks.
Keyboard-interactive authentication is disabled to avoid man-in-the-middle attacks.
debug3: send packet: type 21
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 1
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug3: receive packet: type 21
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 0
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug2: key: /home/user/.ssh/ceph_rsa (0x55d8ec4dd860), agent
debug2: key: /home/user/.ssh/amito_rsa (0x55d8ec4d8c30), agent
debug2: key: aaaa (0xxxxxxxxxxxxx), agent
debug2: key: bbbb (0xxxxxxxxxxxxx), agent
debug2: key: cccc (0xxxxxxxxxxxxx), agent
debug2: key: dddd (0xxxxxxxxxxxxx), agent
debug2: key: /home/user/.ssh/xxxx ((nil)), explicit
debug3: send packet: type 5
debug3: receive packet: type 7
debug1: SSH2_MSG_EXT_INFO received
debug1: kex_input_ext_info: server-sig-algs=<rsa-sha2-256,rsa-sha2-512>
debug3: receive packet: type 6
debug2: service_accept: ssh-userauth
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug3: start over, passed a different list publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug3: preferred gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,publickey
debug3: authmethod_lookup gssapi-keyex
debug3: remaining preferred: gssapi-with-mic,publickey
debug3: authmethod_is_enabled gssapi-keyex
debug1: Next authentication method: gssapi-keyex
debug1: No valid Key exchange context
debug2: we did not send a packet, disable method
debug3: authmethod_lookup gssapi-with-mic
debug3: remaining preferred: publickey
debug3: authmethod_is_enabled gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Next authentication method: gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information
No Kerberos credentials available (default cache: KCM:)


debug1: Unspecified GSS failure. Minor code may provide more information
No Kerberos credentials available (default cache: KCM:)


debug2: we did not send a packet, disable method
debug3: authmethod_lookup publickey
debug3: remaining preferred:
debug3: authmethod_is_enabled publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx /home/user/.ssh/eeee_rsa
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx /home/user/.ssh/aaaa_rsa
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx bbbb
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx cccc
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx eeee
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic
debug1: Offering public key: RSA SHA256:xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ffff
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 1
Received disconnect from 172.16.22.11 port 22:2: Too many authentication failures
Disconnected from 172.16.22.11 port 22

原来 SSH 在登录时, 会依次尝试密钥, 直到找到一个能成功的. 然而 SSH 服务端会设置几次登录失败后就将其禁掉. 找到了原因, 解决方法也简单..

方法

一个简单的方法是将多的密钥移除, 但是密钥自有其存在的意义, 使用同一个密钥登录所有服务器也不现实. 另一个方法就是在 ~/.ssh/config 中指定使用的密钥, 并且加上 IdentitiesOnly=yes.

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Host myhost
Hostname my_host_ip
User user
Port port
Identitiesonly=yes
Identityfile ~/.ssh/id_rsa

为简便, 可以对所有 host 都进行设置.

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Host *
Serveraliveinterval 60
StrictHostKeyChecking no
Identitiesonly=yes